Мониторинг сообществ на гарях и управление пожарами в заповедниках. Отв. ред. Л.В. Кулешовакнига

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1. Полный текст All-book-Fire2002vklejki.pdf 24,9 МБ 30 апреля 2015 [VladimirKorotkov]

[1] Мониторинг сообществ на гарях и управление пожарами в заповедниках. Отв. ред. Л.В. Кулешова / И. А. Аверина, Н. В. Беляева, Г. С. Гайсин и др. — ВНИИприроды Москва, 2002. — 276 с. В книге широко отражены результаты изучения лесных пожаров и их последствий в заповедниках и национальных парках России. Проанализирована статистика и география пожаров на охраняемых природных территориях страны (ООПТ). Подведены итоги комплексных исследований на гарях Окского заповедника. Представлены данные по заповедникам различных географических зон и природных регионов. Описаны организованные по единой схеме стационары для мониторинга природных комплексов на гарях. Предложен регионально-дифференцированный подход к пожарам на ООПТ. Разработаны планы действий в отношении пожаров для различных по природным условиям заповедников и парков. Annually the fires spread on the huge wood territories of Russia and expand also protected natural areas. As caused by fire successions are long-term, they influence a biological diversity of reserve or national park during decades – change the correlation of the ecosystems areas, reduce (more seldom increase) the abundance of many species of plants and animals etc. At the same time the recognition of fires as one of the major natural factors of ecosystem dynamics, the variety of evolutionally formed adaptations to fire both on species, and cenosis level, predetermine the special attitude to them in reserves and national parks. The main wood countries of the world still in 1960-1980 have refused a total fire control in protected areas. However mechanical transfer of such approach to our reserves and national parks can result in negative consequences. World experience in this field is also different, and it is far up to the final decision of a problem of wood fires in protected areas. It is still within recollection the sharp discussion concerning fires in 1988, embracing huge areas in national parks of USA, first of all in Yellow-stone Park; even government of this country has joined this discussion. The fire which had arisen as a result of natural inflaming and that's why it hadn't been put out at once has passed on this protected area more than one million acres (or more than 4000 square km). As a result of anomalous weather conditions in summer 2002, according to the official communications, fire also was widely distributed in some national parks of USA, Canada, Australia. Big fires of last summer (2002) in the European part of Russia were called “Moscow fires”. Their main cores were placed as in 1972 to dried peat mosses of Me-schera lowland. With reference to native protected areas the special attitude to fires is determined both by natural features of Russia, and by economic traditions, natural resources use and conservation. On the territory occupying the northern part of Eurasian continent, on significant its part with mainly anticyclonic weather in warm time and with prevalence of well burned larch and pine ecosystems in structure of woods, with weak developing and consequently difficult access to extensive spaces behind the Ural and on the contrary with densely populated Russian Plain there is no question of the conscious admission of fire to protected areas practically. Recently fires have been marked annually within more than 30 % of strict nature reserves of Russia and affect in general more than 100 thousand hectares of reserved woods. In the light of it we use the term "fire management in protected areas" borrowed from foreign practice with certain reserve. First of all the question is about a way of the most effective protection of conserved natural ecosystems from fire. The managed fire on sites with plentiful fuel accumulations is considered in most cases only as a fire-prevention measure. In view of the become frequent waves of large wood fires and with absence of an effective system of fire prevention it is very important to develop principles of policy in relation to fires within protected areas. First of all the question is about working out the priorities in protection of conserved commu-nities from fire, that in turn should promote the greatest efficiency of use of material resources provided for this purpose. In this book the regional approach to wood fires and their consequences on model protected areas is offered. This approach includes estimation of real susceptibility to fires of various regions of Russia and characteristic natural "fire circulation" of ecosystems in these regions, specific set of species and communities suffering from fires or on the contrary those initially connected with burning sites, as well as estimation of change in the number of different groups of species etc. (look the article by L.V. Кuleshova, V.N. Кorotkov). The regional groups of strict nature reserves with specific fire management measures were defined using the following criteria: repeatability (number) of fires in strict nature reserve, reasons for their occurrence and area of distribution, character of "after fire" successions, the development level of reserve’s region etc. To determine tactics in relation to fires we took into account: the size of reserved territory and the shape of its borders, the conditions of protected ecosystems (in reserve and near to it), the presence of sources of higher fire danger etc. For more effective fire protection of natural ecosystems of particular nature reserve or national park the "area-difference" approach is developed based on real danger to different sites of this reserve (or park) and the location of value natural objects relatively to these sites. With these purposes the concept of value natural objects in strict nature reserves with a high level of fire danger as "groups of fire risk " was developed and offered for practical use. The developed approach was approbated on federal protected areas with a different regime of protection – in four strict nature reserves and one national park. Two strict nature reserves of them exist almost three quarters of century, they are notable for good state of natural complexes, but thus they have tested influence of recent fires. These are Tsentralno-Lesnoy reserve in the European part of the country and Sikhote-Alinsky reserve in the Far East. The third of considered reserves – Kerzhensky – was created rather recently (in 1992), it carries traces of repeated influence of fires, including catastrophic one, happened in 1972. Its territory is divided into different functional zones; there are sites of limited economic use that approaches its regime to one accepted for national parks in Russia. In Окsky strict nature reserve the main attention by devel-oping the plan of fire management was paid to the biosphere zone. It was allocated in 1992 within the territory strongly disturbed by woodcutting and drainage. Model strict nature reserves refer to different regional groups: Kerzhensky, Окsky, Tsentralno-Lesnoy – to pure "european" one, Sikhote-Alinsky – to group of protected areas located behind Ural. In the first case the strong protection of reserves against fires is provided as the fires have mainly anthropogenic origin, in second – the admission of fire to some sites is possible with active protection against fires (including of natural origin) of all the protected territory (look the article by L.V. Кuleshova, V.N. Кorotkov). The national park "Meschera" located in region with high density of the population, various forms of resource use and also with high susceptibility to fires concentrate problems accompanying activity of protected areas in the Center of the European part of the country. Traces of drainage, intensive wood economy and recreational use are evident here. The experience of communities monitoring on burned sites of 1972 is generalized in Oksky reserve which within the framework of the project ROLL was used for organization of permanent monitoring stations with the purpose of studying fires consequences in model reserves (look the articles by I.A. Averina, O.V. Gorjantzeva, V.V. Kontorshikov, V.N. Korotkov, L.V. Kuleshova, N.A. Potapova). Thus the specific features of each of them were taken into account. In mountain Sikhote-Alinsky reserve the permanent monitoring station has a kind of a topoecological belt (stripe) which covers burned sites on slopes of different exposition; the source of ignition – larch injured by a lightning was found in 20 м from the top of a mountain slope (look the article by M.N. Gromyko, E.A. Smirnova). In Tsentralno-Lesnoy reserve, where sites after a fire occupy rather homogeneous "wind-falling" territory, monitoring station included two test areas which were settled on territory with windfallen trees still in 1976 (look the article by T.I. Zhitluhina, A.I. Dobridenev, E.N. Kuraeva, T.Ju. Minaeva, E.S. Shaposhnikova). In Kerzhensky reserve the degree of economic activity intervention in a course of renewal changes was taken into account: monitoring belts were settled in "rest zone" and in " zone of interaction " (look the article by S.Ju. Popov). In the book there are articles devoted to various aspects of study of fires and their consequences in strict nature reserves of different regions of Russia. In Kerzhensky reserve the largest wood fires of 20 century have been analyzed (look the article by A.V. Konstantinov). In Altaisky reserve the natural fires arising from lightning are located on small areas in the top part of slopes. In such cases it is expedient to regard fires as natural factor of ecosystems dynamics. Fires occurring on people's fault prevail by amount and area. It determines the necessity of effective protection of reserved areas from anthropogenic fires (look the article by M.B. Sakhnevich). In Bashkirsky strict nature reserve conifer pine-larch forests of a mountain mass the Southern Кraka have the highest burning capacity, and the large part of fires arises by a natural way from dry lightnings (look the article by G.S. Gaissina). The complex study of fire consequences has been carried out in Visimsky reserve; the condition of vegetation, communities of basidial macromycets, various groups of animal population (soil invertebrates, small mammals, birds) have been analysed there (look the article by N.B. Beljaeva, E.G. Larin, O.A. Lukjanov, L.E. Lukjanova, L.V. Marina, R.Z. Sybgatullin, N.L. Uhova). In Dzherginsky strict nature reserve fire influence on birds population was studied (look the article by E.N. Elaev). The developed plans of fire management with the uniform methodical approach have appeared essentially various because of a variety of natural conditions, specific state of natural complexes, peculiar location of protected areas in a system of natural resources use of the appropriate region. In Tsentralno-Lesnoy reserve the strategy and tactics of the attitude to fires were based on its rather small area, high degree of economic development of adjoining territory, island location of this reserve, uniqueness of conserved fir-wood and a number of other objects worthy of special protection. In result the strategic conclusion is made about complete protection of this reserve against fire and necessity to extinguish fires irrespective of whether they are inside reserve or outside of it or of natural or artificial origin. In result of fire zoning reserve's territory is divided into two parts appropriate to two classes of fire danger (look the article by T.I. Zhitluhina, G.B. Shubenko). In Sikhote-Alinsky reserve the fires refer to the natural – historical factors which have formed the pattern of its modern live cover. From the moment of reserve's organization the quantity of fires and their area sharply reduced. But nowadays roads construction of common use through reserve and along its borders, timber industry development of adjoining territory, organization of farms near to reserve have aggravated fire danger severely. Last years the anthropogenic fires cover the huge areas in the middle Sikhote-Alin Mountains. There is a fear for safety of virgin woods, endemic species and unique ecosystem. In modern conditions the conclusion is made about absolute priority of fire-prevention measures and inadmissibility of fire penetration (including controlled fire) on any of reserve's sites. Fire zoning divides territory into five districts appropriate to different classes of fire danger with due regard for localization of especially value natural objects and forming "groups of fire risk" (look the article by M.N. Gromyko, E.A. Smirnova). The analysis of materials on Kerzhensky reserve located in a zone of coniferous-broad-leafed woods of Russian Plain, but covered basically by pine forests of fire origin, has allowed to prove a conclusion about strict necessity to prevent occurrence and distribution of fires within its territory. The conscious admission of a fire on the limited area and introduction of controlled fires are probable with the purpose of increasing stability of woods to fire influence. Depending on particular conditions and in view of functional zoning the whole territory of reserve is divided into several "blocks", and for each one the system of fire-prevention measures is developed, including such measures as authorization of gathering fallen trees and branches by local people in separate sites. In conditions of Kerzhensky reserve the essential attention is planned to pay to fire-prevention propaganda among the tourists and local people (look the article by I.A. Averina, S.P. Urbavanavichute, A.V. Konstantinov). In the appropriate plan of actions developed for biosphere zone of Oksky reserve, the basic attention is given to creation of fire-prevention barriers. The reconstruction of drainage network is planned with an establishment of sluices – regulators, that was designed when creating this network, but was not realized. It is interesting the offer to expand the food sources for beaver; the increasing of its population can reduce essen-tially the danger of catastrophic fires occured along this territory in recent past (in 1936 and 1972). The special attention in preventive maintenance of fires occurrence is given to social measures. It is recommended to create school forestries in those settlements, which border on biosphere zone, and also to supply the local people with the work in the field of territory maintenance etc. (look the article by V.B. Shirinja). Strategic position in relation to fires in na-tional park Meschera, where pine forests dominate in wood structure, is also not to allow fire on its territory (look the article by V.A. Nemchenko). But it is not excluded the introduction of controlled fire on the limited sites of the park with the purpose of destruction of easily inflammable materials accumulated there. The strong control (by wood and range services) of the sites with high burning capacity is provided. However the main priority is given up to ecological education of the people. It is remarkable that the introduction of national park regime in 1992 didn't reduce the frequency of ignitions in comparison with the previous time. The development of action plans aimed at management of fires and their consequences for model protected areas has shown that the offered program can be used more broadly up to separate wood regions as whole. Regional and local protected areas, as well as the woods withdrawn from intensive use (reserved territory, water protecting woods etc.) can serve as a base in this case. The allocation of priorities in conserving natural objects against uncontrolled fire in protected areas will contribute to creation of a system of wood fire management in strict nature reserves and national parks, in particular to promote an effective use of funds (money, resources) for fire-prevention measures. The program of actions with respect to fires and their consequences is necessary to be adopted as "Guidelines for fire management in protected areas". The ecological expediency of actions should become the leading reason by its development.

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