Current state of coniferous-broad-leaved forests in Russia and Ukraine: historical development, biodiversity, dynamicкнига

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1. Полный текст SmirnovaOv_1995_Coniferous1.pdf 3,4 МБ 21 марта 2016 [sov1933]
2. Полный текст SmirnovaOv_1995_Coniferous.djvu 2,1 МБ 21 марта 2016 [sov1933]

[1] Current state of coniferous-broad-leaved forests in Russia and Ukraine: historical development, biodiversity, dynamic / O. V. Smirnova, R. V. Popadyuk, O. I. Evstigneev et al. — PRC RAS Preprint: Pushchino, 1995. — 76 p. The article contains several sections. The first one is devoted to classifying forests into subzones and geographical variants. Two subzones marked out traditionally: a subzone of coniferous-broad-leaved forests and a subzone of south taiga. The subzones are distinguished by positions of broad-leaved trees and nemoral herb species. The whole zone contains 6 geographical variants that differ one another by the species' richness of tree synusia, the dominant tree species, vertical and horizontal structure of communities. The second section concerns the syntaxonomy of Russian mixed forests, and a floristic composition of intact old-growth forests. The complete syntaxonomy is absent, because different sources were used just as a previous prodromus of syntaxa. The floristic composition and structure of mixed forests are very heterogeneous. Nevertheless, the group of nemoral species is represented well in all the variants, and they are relatively constant there. The proportion of boreal species increases from south to north and from west to east, but this group is poorly represented in south variants. The third section contains a brief review of Holocene history of mixed forests. The northern border of broad-leaved forests shifted to the south on 300- 700 kilometers. There are two of causes of this phenomenon: climatic changes, and land-use. The last one includes shifting cultivation, cattle grazing, planting of pine and spruce on clear-cuttings and oldfields. The forth section describes structure and natural dynamics of old-growth forests. The dynamics of mixed forests as whole depends simultaneously on: the longevity of trees; the light condition for seedlings: the structure of herb layer; and the quantity of decay wood. The last section describes the secondary successions. We show the significance of two ways of forest transformations. The first one is shifting — cultivation; the second — selection and clear cuttings.

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