Russian Nature Reserves and Conservation of Biological Diversityстатья

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Дата последнего поиска статьи во внешних источниках: 10 февраля 2018 г.

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[1] Russian nature reserves and conservation of biological diversity / M. A. Colwell, A. V. Dubynin, A. Y. Koroliuk, N. A. Sobolev // Natural Areas Journal. — 1997. — Vol. 17, no. 1. — P. 56–68. Russia is the world's greatest region of temperate and boreal biological diversity. Although Russia's natural heritage has a long history of both abuse and protection, it is in imminent danger of further degradation due to new threats from social and economic reforms. information on Russian conservation is limited in English-language literature. We review the status, organization, site, and distribution of four main types of Russian nature reserves, which differ in size and degree of protection. As of January 1, 1996, the federal system included 93 state nature reserves (zapovedniks), 30 national parks, 69 state nature refuges (zakazniks), and 29 nature monuments (pahmyatniks prirody). Zapovedniks, the largest reserves (six exceed 1,000,000 ha), are in principle the strictest protected areas in the world (IUCN category I), Established for scientific research and preservation of nature, they are staffed by scientists and enforcement personnel. The purposes of national parks (IUCN category II, V), also large (two exceed 1,000,000 ha), include maintenance of natural and cultural heritage, scientific and conservation education, and recreation. Two types of preserve at the regional level, zakazniks (IUCN category IV, V) and nature monuments (IUCN category III), protect the largest (55,500,000 ha) amount of the Russian landscape and conserve special features of natural heritage (e.g., zoological or botanical areas, landscapes, hydrological sites, geological features), but only rarely have enforcement personnel. Reserves ate located in all major bioregions and they cover about 92,036,901 ha (5.49b) of Russia-a comparatively modest proportion both within Asia and globally. However, mast zapovedniks and national parks are: in densely populated European Russia and the Caucasus and are smaller than reserves in sparsely populated regions of Siberia and the Far East, As a result, Russia's protected areas probably do not adequately represent diversity, nor can they maintain viable species populations (particularly of top carnivores) and ecosystem processes. Moreover, in most reserves, enforcement is lax and pressures to exploit resources have increased; thus, some of Russia's protected areas are now ”paper parks” that exist in name yet are unable to fulfill conservation objectives. Improving the effectiveness of Russia's protected areas requires increasing their number and size, broadening their geographical placement, and strengthening and expanding enforcement programs, Ultimately, conservation of Russia's natural heritage in protected areas will fail if Russians do not expand their understanding of the benefits of nature, integrate local communities into conservation planning, and broaden government (both Russian and foreign) support for conservation.

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