Cryovolcanism on the Earth: Origin of a Spectacular Crater in the Yamal Peninsula (Russia)статья

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[1] Cryovolcanism on the earth: Origin of a spectacular crater in the yamal peninsula (russia) / S. N. Buldovicz, V. Z. Khilimonyuk, A. Y. Bychkov et al. // Scientific reports. — 2018. — Vol. 8. Geological activity on ice planets and planetoids includes cryovolcanism. Until recently, most research in terrestrial permafrost has been engineering-oriented, and many phenomena have received too little consideration and thought. Although fast processes in the Earth's cryosphere were known before, they have never been attributed to cryovolcanism. The discovery of a huge crater in the Yamal Peninsula aroused numerous hypotheses of its origin, including a meteorite impact or migration of deep gas as a result of global warming. The origin of the Yamal crater can be explained in terms of cryospheric processes. Thus, the Yamal crater appears to result from collapse of a large pingo which formed within a thaw lake when it shoaled and dried out allowing a large talik below it to freeze back. The pingo collapsed under cryogenic hydrostatic pressure built-up in the closed system of the freezing talik. This had happened before the freezing completed, when a core of wet ground remained unfrozen and stored a huge amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in pore water, eventually reaching gas-phase saturation, and overpressure exceeded the lithospheric confining stress and the strength of the overlying ice. As the pingo exploded, the crater followed the cylindrical shape of the remnant talik core. [ DOI ]

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