The record of the history of anthropogenic landscape transformation in the actual soil cover of the New Jerusalem Monasteryстатья

Дата последнего поиска статьи во внешних источниках: 26 января 2018 г.

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[1] Kolesnikova V. M., Urusevskay I. S., Vertyankina V. Y. The record of the history of anthropogenic landscape transformation in the actual soil cover of the new jerusalem monastery // SUITMA 9. 9th international congress Soils of Urban Industrial Traffic Mining and Military Areas. “Urbanization: a challenge and an opportunity for soil functions and ecosystem services” Russia Moscow 22-26 May 2017. ABSTRACT BOOK. — Vol. 264. — RUDN University Moscow, 2017. — P. 184–185. The New Jerusalem monastery is the Federal target object and one of the largest cultural and historical monuments. The New Jerusalem Monastery is situated in Istra city, Moscow Region. It was built in 1656 year by Patriarch Nikon. The territory surround of the monastery had transformed and bethink like natural cultural landscape reproducing the topography of The Holy Land according to the conception of The Russian Palestine. The monastery was one of the most popular center of pilgrimage in the XIX and in the beginning of the XX centuries. There are several steps which include of the anthropogenic influence on the territory of the monastery. The most important are connected with building and operation of monastery, although the beginning of the agricultural development of the territory dates back of the iron century (Ershov I. N., Aleksandrovskiy A. L., Ershova E. G. et al. 2014). The monastery was built in the bend of the river Istra on the hill of nature provenience congruent to the second terrace above the flood-plain which occur moraine, fluvioglacial deposits and alluvium sediments of the different ages. The investigations of soil cover inside walls of the monastery and on private territory were in 2012 – 2013 years. Soil profiles were described inside walls of the monastery in the different types of the land uses: near the avenue of arborvitae on site of the grave yards of XVII century, under the Apple – trees garden, on the grassplot near the south wall of monastery, although on the north hillslope of monastery from the Inoplementing town to Kedronskiy’s flow course. The territory inside of the monastery walls was exposed to the greatest transformation, which concerned to fills and strengthening for slopes of the hill, the construction and repair of the monastery buildings, several fires, the destruction during the years of The Great Patriotic War, archaeological excavation and etc. The natural soil cover have been completely destroyed and the natural ground in the different historical periods covered by anthropogenic deposits rapidly as a result of this transformation. The anthropogenic deposits are widespread of all the territory of hill and are represented by clay, sand including waste ( broken brick and 50 % limestone) and have a thickness from 0,1 to 0,8 meters. On the territory inside the monastery walls we was investigation the Urbic Technosols on technogenic deposites, bubbling up from HCl, starting from the surface. The soil profiles divided into the densely penetrated by roots sod horizon, urbistratified horizon with inclusions of brickbat and limestone, which is sharply changed to the technogenic sediments. There are not soil formation characters between the separate technogenic horizons. The technogenic horizons underlied stratified alluvial sediments. The upper horizons of soils were characterized of carbonate – argillaceous – humic composite of plasma, the highest biogenesity with wealth coprogenic zones, the aggregated matter, which testified to presence the modern humic – accumulative process according to the results of micromorfologycally studies. The Urbic Technosols on technogenic sediments was described in the Apple – trees garden, which was newly planted on the territory of monastery in 70st years of XX century. Its profile differed from the above soils of bigger depth of stratification thickness which was necessary for roots system development of fruit trees. The Urbic Technosols were formed on the steep slope side of the second terrace above the flood-plain, on allochthonous subsoil maked up from outside to strengthened the walls of monastery. The thickness of the filling layer which including brickbats amounted the 90 cm. The humus horizons formed in its upper part. Below its underlay technogenic bed or buried subsoil.

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