Toxicity Testing of Chemicals without Use of Animalsстатья

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[1] Ostroumov S. A. Toxicity testing of chemicals without use of animals // Russian Journal of General Chemistry. — 2016. — Vol. 86, no. 13. — P. 2933–2941. Ostroumov S.A. 2016. Toxicity Testing of Chemicals without Use of Animals. Russian Journal of General Chemistry, Vol. 86, № 13, p. 2933-2941. ** Ostroumov S.A. 2016. Toxicity Testing of Chemicals without Use of Animals. Russian Journal of General Chemistry, издательство Maik Nauka/Interperiodica Publishing (Russian Federation), Vol. 86, № 13, p. 2933-2941. ** ISSN 1070-3632, Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 86, No. 13, pp. 2933–2941. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016. Original Russian Text © S.A. Ostroumov, 2016, published in Ekologicheskaya Khimiya, 2016, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 5–15. Toxicity Testing of Chemicals without Use of Animals; S. A. Ostroumov; Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 Russia; e-mail: Ostroumov@mail.bio.msu.ru; Received October 8, 2015; Abstract: A series of publications on the studies of phytotoxicity of chemicals (pollutants, ecotoxicants), carried out by the author and his research group, have been reviewed. Tests (bioassays) based on experiments with many higher plant species, both terrestrial and aquatic ones (macrophytes), were used in these studies. Among the chemicals tested there were various organic (synthetic detergents, surfactants, and pesticides) and some inorganic (e.g., metal oxide nanoparticles) compounds. New methods for bioassay using plant species never used before have been developed by the author. New facts of phytotoxicity of a synthetic detergent have been discovered and reported. Specifically, an aqueous solution of liquid detergent Frosch (Werner & Mertz, FRG) at a concentration of 0.25 mL/L (and higher concentrations) inhibited the elongation rate of seedlings of Lens culinaris higher plant species. Also, phytotoxicity of synthetic cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethyl- ammonium bromide has been reported for the first time. This surfactant at a concentration of 4 mg/L inhibited the elongation of Lens culinaris plant seedlings. The phytotesting methods contribute to the development of alternative approaches to studying the toxicity of chemicals through non-animal testing. KEYWORDS: phytotoxicity, biotest, phytotest, alternative methods, non-animal testing, toxicity, hazard assessment, bioassay, plant seedlings, detergent, cationic surfactant, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, Lens culinaris; DOI: 10.1134/S1070363216130028; Useful relevant references: REFERENCES 1. Lazareva, E.V., and Ostroumov, S.A., Dokl. Biol. 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