Arctic Ocean Warming Contributes to Reduced Polar Ice Capстатья

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[1] Arctic ocean warming contributes to reduced polar ice cap / I. V. Polyakov, L. A. Timokhov, V. A. Alexeev et al. // Journal of Physical Oceanography. — 2010. — Vol. 40, no. 12. — P. 2743–2756. Analysis of modern and historical observations demonstrates that the temperature of the intermediate depth (150–900 m) Atlantic water (AW) of the Arctic Ocean has increased in recent decades. The AW warming has been uneven in time; a local ;18C maximum was observed in the mid 1990s, followed by an intervening minimum and an additional warming that culminated in 2007 with temperatures higher than in the 1990s by 0.248C. Relative to climatology from all data prior to 1999, the most extreme 2007 temperature anomalies of up to 18C and higher were observed in the Eurasian and Makarov Basins. TheAWwarming was associated with a substantial (up to 75–90 m) shoaling of the upperAWboundary in the central Arctic Ocean and weakening of the Eurasian Basin upper-ocean stratification. Taken together, these observations suggest that the changes in the Eurasian Basin facilitated greater upward transfer of AW heat to the ocean surface layer. Available limited observations and results from a 1D ocean column model support this surmised upward spread of AW heat through the Eurasian Basin halocline. Experiments with a 3D coupled ice–ocean model in turn suggest a loss of 28–35 cm of ice thickness after;50 yr in response to the 0.5 W m22 increase in AW ocean heat flux suggested by the 1D model. This amount of thinning is comparable to the 29 cm of ice thickness loss due to local atmospheric thermodynamic forcing estimated from observations of fast-ice thickness decline. The implication is thatAWwarming helped precondition the polar ice cap for the extreme ice loss observed in recent years. [ DOI ]

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