Geochemistry of major and rare earth elements in garnet of the kal-e kafi skarn, anarak area, central iran: constraints on processes in a hydrothermal systemстатья

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[1] Geochemistry of major and rare earth elements in garnet of the kal-e kafi skarn, anarak area, central iran: constraints on processes in a hydrothermal system / S. Ranjbar, S. M. Tabatabaei Manesh, M. A. Mackizadeh et al. // Geochemistry International. — 2016. — Vol. 54, no. 5. — P. 423–438. Grossular-andradite (grandite) garnets, precipitated from hydrothermal solutions is associated with contact metamorphism in the Kal-e Kafi skarn show complex oscillatory chemical zonation. These skarn garnets preserve the records of the temporal evolution of contact metasomatism. According to microscopic studies and microprobe analysis profiles, the studied garnet has two distinct parts: the intermediate (granditic) composition birefringent core that its andradite content based on microprobe analysis varies between 0.68–0.7. This part is superimposed with more andraditic composition, and the isotropic rim which its andradite content regarding microprobe analysis ranges between 0.83–0.99. Garnets in the studied sample are small (0.5–2 mm in diameter) and show complex oscillatory zoning. Electron microprobe analyses of the oscillatory zoning in grandite garnet of the Kal-e Kafi area showed a fluctuation in chemical composition. The grandite garnets normally display core with intermediate composition with oscillatory Fe-rich zones at the rim. Detailed study of oscillatory zoning in grandite garnet from Kal-e Kafi area suggests that the garnet has developed during early metasomatism involving monzonite to monzodiorite granitoid body intrusion into the Anarak schist- marble interlayers. During this metasomatic event, Al, Fe, and Si in the fluid have reacted with Ca in carbonate rocks to form grandite garnet. The first step of garnet growth has been coeval with intrusion of the Kal-e Kafi granitoid into the Anarak schist- marble interlayers. In this period of garnet growth, change in fluid composition may cause the garnet to stop growing temporarily or keep growing but in a much slower rate allowing Al to precipitate rather than Fe. The next step consists of pervasive infiltration of Fe rich fluids and Fe rich grandite garnets formation as the rim of previously formed more Al rich garnets. Oscillatory zoning in the garnet probably reflects an oscillatory change in the fluid composition which may be internally and/or externally controlled. The results revealed enrichment in light REEs (LREE) with a maximum at Pr and Nd and a negative to no Eu anomaly. This pattern is resulted from the uptake of REE out of hydrothermal fluids by growing crystals of calcsilicate minerals principally andradite with amounts of LREE controlled by the difference in ionic radius between Ca++ and REE3+ in garnet x site.

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