Racemose inflorescences of monocots: structural and morphogenetic interaction at the flower/inflorescence levelстатья

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[1] Racemose inflorescences of monocots: structural and morphogenetic interaction at the flower/inflorescence level / M. V. Remizowa, P. J. Rudall, V. V. Choob, D. D. Sokoloff // Annals of Botany. — 2013. — Vol. 112, no. 8. — P. 1553–1566. Background Understanding and modelling early events of floral meristem patterning and floral development requires consideration of positional information regarding the organs surrounding the floral meristem, such as the flower-subtending bracts (FSBs) and floral prophylls (bracteoles). In common with models of regulation of floral patterning, the simplest models of phyllotaxy consider only unbranched uniaxial systems. Racemose inflorescences and thyrses offer a useful model system for investigating morphogenetic interactions between organs belonging to different axes. Scope This review considers (1) racemose inflorescences of early-divergent and lilioid monocots and their possible relationship with other inflorescence types, (2) hypotheses on the morphogenetic significance of phyllomes surrounding developing flowers, (3) patterns of FSB reduction and (4) vascular patterns in the primary inflorescence axis and lateral pedicels. Conclusions Racemose (partial) inflorescences represent the plesiomorphic condition in monocots. The presence or absence of a terminal flower or flower-like structure is labile among early-divergent monocots. In some Alismatales, a few-flowered racemose inflorescence can be entirely transformed into a terminal ‘flower’. The presence or absence and position of additional phyllomes on the lateral pedicels represent important taxonomic markers and key features in regulation of flower patterning. Racemose inflorescences with a single floral prophyll are closely related to thyrses. Floral patterning is either unidirectional or simultaneous in species that lack a floral prophyll or possess a single adaxial floral prophyll and usually spiral in the outer perianth whorl in species with a transversely oriented floral prophyll. Inhibitory fields of surrounding phyllomes are relevant but insufficient to explain these patterns; other important factors are meristem space economy and/or the inhibitory activity of the primary inflorescence axis. Two patterns of FSB reduction exist in basal monocots: (1) complete FSB suppression (cryptic flower-subtending bract) and (2) formation of a ‘hybrid’ organ by overlap of the developmental programmes of the FSB and the first abaxial organ formed on the floral pedicel. FSB reduction affects patterns of interaction between the conductive systems of the flower and the primary inflorescence axis. [ DOI ]

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