Feminization of Male Mouse Liver by Persistent Growth Hormone Stimulation: Activation of Sex-Biased Transcriptional Networks and Dynamic Changes in Chromatin Statesстатья

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[1] Lau-Corona D., Suvorov A., Waxman D. J. Feminization of male mouse liver by persistent growth hormone stimulation: Activation of sex-biased transcriptional networks and dynamic changes in chromatin states // Molecular and Cellular Biology. — 2017. — Vol. 37, no. 19. Sex-dependent pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretory profiles-pulsatile in males and persistent in females-regulate the sex-biased, STAT5-dependent expression of hundreds of genes in mouse liver, imparting sex differences in hepatic drug/lipid metabolism and disease risk. Here, we examine transcriptional and epigenetic changes induced by continuous GH infusion (cGH) in male mice, which rapidly feminizes the temporal profile of liver STAT5 activity. cGH repressed 86% of male-biased genes and induced 68% of female-biased genes within 4 days; however, several highly female-specific genes showed weak or no feminization, even after 14 days of cGH treatment. Female-biased genes already in an active chromatin state in male liver generally showed early cGH responses; genes in an inactive chromatin state often responded late. Early cGH-responsive genes included those encoding two GH/STAT5-regulated transcriptional repressors: male-biased BCL6, which was repressed, and female-specific CUX2, which was induced. Male-biased genes activated by STAT5 and/or repressed by CUX2 were enriched for early cGH repression. Female-biased BCL6 targets were enriched for early cGH derepression. Changes in sex-specific chromatin accessibility and histone modifications accompanied these cGH-induced sex-biased gene expression changes. Thus, the temporal, sex-biased gene responses to persistent GH stimulation are dictated by GH/STAT5-regulated transcription factors arranged in a hierarchical network and by the dynamics of changes in sex-biased epigenetic states. [ DOI ]

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