Multiphase Hydrodechlorination of 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene on Palladium Catalysts Supported on Alumina: Effect of the Support Properties and Modification by Heteropoly Acid Based on Silicon and Tungstenстатья

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Дата последнего поиска статьи во внешних источниках: 17 июля 2019 г.

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[1] Multiphase hydrodechlorination of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene on palladium catalysts supported on alumina: Effect of the support properties and modification by heteropoly acid based on silicon and tungsten / E. V. Golubina, E. S. Lokteva, U. D. Gurbanova et al. // Kinetics and Catalysis. — 2019. — Vol. 60, no. 3. — P. 297–314. Catalytic systems 2 wt % Pd/Al2O3 were prepared using noncalcined boehmite (NC) and two types of alumina support: one was prepared by the calcination of boehmite at 600oC (C) and the other produced by Engelhard (E). To prepare 2 wt % Pd/HPC–Al2O3 samples, these supports were modified by impregnation by a heteropoly compound (HPC) (20 wt % Н8[Si(W2O7)6] ⋅ 6Н2О). The effect of the Al2O3 structure and its modification by the heteropoly compound on the physicochemical properties, activity, selectivity and stability of catalysts in the reaction of multiphase hydrodechlorination of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (TCB) was studied. All catalysts showed activity in the considered reaction with the predominant formation of benzene but were deactivated in the reaction medium. Modification by the heteropoly compound resulted in increased stability and was especially effective for catalyst supported on Al2O3(E). The method of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the morphological differences of supports. According to the data of transmission electron microscopy, all catalysts contained palladium in the form of particles less than 20 nm in size. The particle size and width of the size distribution increases in the series Pd/Al2O3(NC) < Pd/Al2O3(C) < Pd/Al2O3(E). Modification by the heteropoly compound was favorable for the decrease in the size of palladium particles. The method of temperature-programmed reduction with hydrogen (TPR-H2) showed that all catalysts included in their composition palladium hydride along with more strongly surfacebound metal forms that are reduced at elevated temperatures, and their content decreases after modification by the heteropoly compound and increases after catalytic tests. According to diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), the deposition of a heteropoly compound leads to a change in the type of Lewis acid sites on the alumina surface and in the electronic state of palladium. According to the results of infrared spectroscopic studies of adsorbed CO, the relatively large particles of Pd0 are the main form on the surface of nonmodified catalysts. The catalysts modified by the heteropoly compound contain single Pd+ and Pd2+ cations, and the fraction of Pd0 is substantially smaller. The specific features of the Lewis acidity of the catalyst surface determine the possibility of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene adsorption and activation on the support and the spillover of hydrogen from Pd0. An increase in the catalyst stability as a result of support modification by the heteropoly compound can be explained by the appearance of new active sites in the interaction of palladium with the heteropoly compound or its thermal decomposition products. [ DOI ]

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