Laboratory Modeling of Aftershock Sequences: Stress Dependences of the Omori and Gutenberg–Richter Parametersстатья

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Дата последнего поиска статьи во внешних источниках: 26 июня 2019 г.

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[1] Laboratory modeling of aftershock sequences: Stress dependences of the omori and gutenberg–richter parameters / V. Smirnov, A. Ponomarev, S. Stanchits et al. // Izvestiya - Physics of the Solid Earth. — 2019. — Vol. 55, no. 1. — P. 124–137. Laboratory experiments on studying the aftershock regime are carried out on sandstone specimens at different levels of axial loading and uniform compression and at constant pore pressure. The aftershock sequences are modeled by the scenario of stepwise increasing axial loading of a specimen with strain control, which ensures the regular generation of aftershock sequences. The experiments are conducted on intact specimens and on those with preliminarily formed shear macrofractures simulating natural faults. The multichannel recording of the signals of acoustic emission (AE) during the experiments allowed locating the AE sources. Several types of the dependence of the parameters of relaxation of the acoustic activity—parameters p and c of the modified Omori law and the Gutenberg–Richter b-value—on the level of acting stresses are revealed. The b-value decreases with the growth of axial stresses at all levels of uniform compression. In the case of a fracture on the preexisting fault, the Omori relaxation parameter p increases with the growth of axial stresses; parameter c—the time delay before the onset of relaxation— decreases with the growth of axial stresses and increases with the rise of the level of uniform compression. In the case of a fracture of an undamaged specimen, parameter p remains unchanged with the growth of axial stresses, whereas parameter c increases slightly. Parameter variations in the case of a complex stress state with both varying deviatoric (differential stresses) and spherical parts (effective pressure) of the stress tensor take on a unified form when expressed in terms of Coulomb stresses. It is hypothesized that the time delay of the relaxation of the aftershock activity is determined by the kinetics of a fracture in accordance with the kinetic concept of strength in solids. This hypothesis is supported by the exponential dependences of parameter c on stresses and the effective strength of the medium which are revealed in the experiments. Under this hypothesis, based on Zhurkov’s formula for the durability of materials, it is possible to unify the dependences of parameter c on the Coulomb stresses at different effective strength values. The obtained parameter estimates for the dependence of c on strength and stresses suggest that the c value is determined by the difference of the strength and the acting stresses, thus indicating how far the stress state of the medium is from critically corresponding to the ultimate strength. [ DOI ]

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