Time-of-day-dependent behavior of surficial lunar hydroxyl/water: Observations and modelingстатья

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Дата последнего поиска статьи во внешних источниках: 25 апреля 2019 г.

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[1] Time-of-day-dependent behavior of surficial lunar hydroxyl/water: Observations and modeling / A. Grumpe, C. Wöhler, A. A. Berezhnoy, V. V. Shevchenko // Icarus. — 2019. — Vol. 321. — P. 486–507. In this study we determine the depth of the absorption band around 3 μm wavelength, which indicates the presence of OH/H2O in a thin surficial layer of the lunar regolith, for 18 lunar highland regions observed by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument at 4–8 different local times of day. For removing the thermal emission component, a physically motivated thermal equilibrium based method is used, which also takes into account the roughness of the regolith surface. We propose a continuity equation based model of the time-of-day-dependent column densities of surficial atomic hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl (OH). The considered source processes for H are implantation of solar wind protons and photolysis of OH, and for OH the reaction H + O → OH. Sink processes are diffusive loss for H and OH, and photolysis for OH. Sputtering of H and OH is found to be negligible in comparison to the other sink processes. Additionally, we suggest a similar differential equation based model to describe the time-of-day-dependent behavior of micrometeoroid-delivered OH and H2O. The observed 3 μm band depth values indicate that the surficial OH/H2O does not vanish even at local midday at low latitudes, while the model predicts nearly complete removal of surficial OH/H2O at midday. This apparent contradiction between model and observations is reconciled by adding to the model a region-specific “offset” OH component which is assumed to be stable against diffusive loss and photolysis and is therefore interpreted as a strongly bounded OH component. Meteoroid bombardment is found to be negligible in comparison with the solar wind source of OH. Fitting the model to the observed 3 μm band depth values allows for estimating the H activation energy, the OH photolysis time, region-specific values of the offset OH component, and the proportionality factor between OH column density and 3 μm band depth. The observed time-of-day-dependent behavior of the 3 μm band depth at low and high latitudes can be explained convincingly by the modeled source and sink processes. The best-fit OH photolysis time is much shorter than the lunar day and corresponds to 1–3 times the gas-phase value, which indicates that photolysis is a mechanism of high relevance for the behavior of solar wind induced surficial OH. The surface roughness assumed in the M3 data analysis does not have a major influence on the modeling results. The strongly bounded OH component is nearly latitude-independent for low latitudes but decreases sharply for high latitudes. As a possible mode of origin, we suggest slow diffusion of solar wind induced OH to depths inaccessible for ultraviolet photons and into binding states of higher energy, counteracted by sputtering. [ DOI ]

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