Nonflowers near the base of extant angiosperms?: spatiotemporal arrangement of organs in reproductive units of hydatellaceae and its bearing on the origin of the flowerстатья

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[1] Nonflowers near the base of extant angiosperms?: spatiotemporal arrangement of organs in reproductive units of hydatellaceae and its bearing on the origin of the flower / P. J. Rudall, M. V. Remizowa, G. Prenner et al. // American Journal of Botany. — 2009. — Vol. 96, no. 1. — P. 67–82. Reproductive units (RUs) of Trithuria, the sole genus of the early-divergent angiosperm family Hydatellaceae, are compared with flowers of their close relatives in Cabombaceae (Nymphaeales), Trithuria RUs combine features of flowers and innorescences. They differ front typical flowers in possessing an "inside-out" morphology, with carpels surrounding stamens; furthermore, carpels develop centrifugally, in contrast to centripetal or simultaneous development in typical flowers. Trithuria RUs could be interpreted as pseudanthia of two or more cymose partial inflorescences enclosed within an involucre, but the bractlike involucral phyllomes do not subtend partial inflorescences and hence collectively resemble a typical perianth. Teratological forms of T submersa indicate a tendency to fasciation and demonstrate that the inside-out structure-the primary feature that separates RUs of Hydatellaceae from more orthodox angiosperm flowers-can be at least partially modified, thus producing it morphology that is closer to an orthodox flower. The Trithuria RU could be described as it "nonflower", i.e., a structure that contains typical angiosperm carpels and stamens but does not allow recognition of a typical angiosperm flower. The term nonflower Could combine cases of secondary loss of flower identity and cases of a prefloral condition, similar to those that gave rise to the angiosperm flower. Nonhomology among some angiosperm flowers Could be due to iterative shifts between nonfloral construction and flower/inflorescence organization of reproductive organs. Potential testing of these hypotheses using evolutionary-developmental genetics is explored using preliminary data from immunolocalization of the floral meristem identity gene LEAFY in T submersa, which indicated protein expression at different hierarchical levels. [ DOI ]

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