Collections of Mycology and Algology Department of Lomonosov Moscow State Universityтезисы доклада

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[1] Kurakov A. Collections of mycology and algology department of lomonosov moscow state university // Conference Proccedings of XXXVII Annual Meeting of The European Culture Collections’ Organisation. — Макс Пресс Moscow, Russia, 2008. — P. 51–53. The Department of Mycology and Algology of Moscow University is one of the leading centers in Russia for the study of systematics, ecology, physiology, biochemistry and genetics of fungi, fungi-like organisms and algae, and their use in biotechnology. The Department was organized in the first quarter of the twentieth century and it is the largest institution in the country, preparing highly qualified specialists in the field of Mycology and Algology. The basis for most scientific research and training are collections and herbariums, which should be represented by organisms of different ecotopes and geographical regions. And therefore, their creation and maintenance is given great attention at the Department. In many ways, this work is based on the study of diversity and ecology of fungi and algae of different systematic and ecological-trophic groups. These research areas have been and remain a priority for the staff of the Department. To study the species composition, the specifics of ecological and geographical distribution of fungi in different natural areas and biogeocenoses, numerous expeditions were carried out in Russia and the republics of the Soviet Union and the countries of the world. As a result of these researches the collections of pure cultures of microscopic fungi, wild, cultivated and edible macromycetes, xylotrophic basidiomycetes, pathogens of solanaceous plants, mycorrhizal agents, endophytes of grasses and algologically pure collection of microalgae were established. In addition to the collections of live cultures, the Department has representative herbariums of lichenized (about 1000 herbarium samples of lichens) and phytopathogenic fungi (2687 herbarium sheets), macromycetes (273 samples), mixomycetes (8794 samples) and algae-macrophytes (807 samples). The expansion of collections is based on the following criteria — due to strains with unique properties, rare and new species, isolates of widely distributed species that are needed for population and phylogeographic studies, and strains of interest to various biotechnologies. The collection of soil microscopic fungi (called MSU_FS) is the richest in the number of strains and represented taxa. It includes 1840 cryosaved strains belonging to 527 genera and 185 species. Cultures were isolated from soils and the connected substrates, mainly, from protected territories (natural reserves) of different regions of the European part of Russia, Siberia, Mongolia, Vietnam. For the last 6 years 1614 strain 430 species isolated from soil and litter of tropical forests of Vietnam, among them 6 species were new to science — Craspedodidymum seifertii Melnik, A. V. Alexandrova & U. Braun, Dactylaria mucoglobifera Melnik, U. Braun & A. V. Alexandrova, Entoloma flavovelutinum O. V. Morozova, E. S. Popov, A. V. Alexandrova & Xiao Lan He, Ityorhoptrum biseptatum Melnik, A. V. Alexandrova & U. Braun, Kiliophora novozhilovii Melnik, U. Braun & A. V. Alexandrova, Pyricularia contorta Melnik, U. Braun & A. V. Alexandrova were introduced in the collection. The large range of fungi that cause various diseases of potatoes and related plants was collected during long-term research by scientists of the Depatrment. The collection of fungi-pathogens of solanaceous plants (MSU_PPO) contains 825 strains of 6 fungal species (Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) S. Hughes, Helminthosporium solani Durieu & Mont., Alternaria solani Sorauer, Thanatephorus cucumeris (A. B. Frank) Donk., Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc.) and one species of oomycetes Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary). They are isolated from the affected by pathogens potato, tomato and wild solanaceous plants collected in Moscow, Kostroma, Leningrad regions, Tatarstan republik, Stavropol and Krasnodar province, and from tubers of seed potatoes imported to Russia from Holland and Germany. The strains are stored on sloped nutrient media in tubes with periodic re-plating. They are used to study the intraspecific diversity, in the development of test systems for rapid diagnosis of pathogens, to assess the resistance to new varieties of potatoes and tomato and the effectiveness of fungicides. The Department actively studies diversity, phylogeny. mechanisms of adaptation of fungi-extremophiles. Majority of them were isolated from alkaline, saline ecotopes of the European part, Siberia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tanzania, and in recent years – from bottom soil, grounds of the northern seas, raised bogs. The collection of extremophilic micromycetes (FEC) includes 150 cryosaved cultures of alkalophilic, alkalotolerant, halotolerant, acidophilic, acidotolerant, psychrotolerant fungi identified to the species on the basis of cultural-morphological and molecular genetic methods. Described New taxa of alcaliphilic and alkalotolerant fungi: 2 genera — Sodiomyces A. A. Grum-Grzhim. et al., Chordomyces Bilanenko, Georgieva & A. A. Grum - Grzhim; 8 species — Sodiomyces alkalinus (Bilanenko & M. Ivanova) A. A. Grum-Grzhim., A. J. M. Debets & Bilanenko, S. magadii S. A. Bondarenko, A. A. Grum-Grzhim., A. J. M. Debets & Bilanenko, S. tronii S. A. Bondarenko, A. A. Grum-Grzhim., A. J. M. Debets & Bilanenko, Emericellopsis alkaline Bilanenko & Georgieva, Chordomyces antarcticum Bilanenko, Georgieva & A. Grum-Grzhim, Alternaria kulundii Bilanenko, Georgieva & A. Grum - Grzhim, A. petuchovskii Bilanenko, Georgieva & A. A. Grum-Grzhim, A. shukurtuzii Bilanenko, Georgieva & A. A. Grum-Grzhim; section – Alternaria sect. Soda Bilanenko, Georgieva & A. A. Grum-Grzhim. The phenomenon of obligate alkalophile was discovered for fungi. The range of proteases secreted by them in alkaline conditions, changes in cytosol and composition of the cytoplasmic membrane were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that alcaliphilic fungi polyphyletic group of ascomycetous affinity. Collection of wild and cultivated macromycetes, lignicolous basidiomycetes (MSU_FM) and (MGUPI) includes 102 cryosaved strains and about 100 strains maintained on nutrient media strains. These collections preserve 10 species of the genus Pleurotus, both fungal cultivated edible strains and natural isolates, strains of Flammulina velutipes (Curtis) Singer, Kuehneromyces mutabilis (Schaeff.) Singer & A. H. Sm., Hericium coralloides (Scop.) Pers. and other cultivated species. Polypore fungi, which are interesting as producers of enzymes that destroy lignocellulosic complexes of wood and compounds with immunomodulatory activity well represented in the collections. Collection of mycorrhizal fungi supported in a small number. Endophytes of cereals grasses are represented by several tens of strains of Claviceps species. The algological collection includes 70 algologically pure strains of microscopic algae, mainly are diatoms (phylum of Ochrophyta), as well as other taxa — Chlorophyta, Charophyta,, Haptophyta, Ochrophyta, Euglenophyta and cyanobacteria, which are represented by several strains. Cultures of freshwater diatoms are supported on a solid agar medium, and others in the liquid medium at 16oC and mode of illumination day/night. The Department has a collection of strains of fungi for bio-resistance testing of synthetic polymer plastics, lubricants, leather and other materials according to the many state standards. Almost all collections are used in the educational process, as well as in the search for producers of promising antibiotics, enzymes and other metabolites, for the development of methods of cryopreservation of cultures. In our collections there are set of strains inhibiting of fungal phytopathogens, effectively oxidizing of oil hydrocarbon, capable to synthesis of antifungals compounds (peptaibols), transformate steroids, produce alkalistable proteases, cyclosporines. Work is underway on the preparation of isolates for the mutually beneficial exchange of strains with a worldwide collection of Russian (VKM, VKPM) and abroad (CBS, VTT). The work was conducted in the framework of the State Assignment, part 2 01 p. 10 (topic # AAAA-A16-116021660088-9) and for developing collections work supported by the RSF, project No. 14-50-00029.

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