Female flower and fruit anatomy of Tetroncium magellanicum: implications for gynoecium evolution in the early divergent monocot order Alismatalesстатья

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[1] Sokoloff D. D., von Mering S., Remizowa M. V. Female flower and fruit anatomy of tetroncium magellanicum: implications for gynoecium evolution in the early divergent monocot order alismatales // Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. — 2015. — Vol. 179, no. 4. — P. 712–724. Female flower and fruit anatomy, including vasculature, are studied for the first time in Tetroncium (Juncaginaceae: Alismatales). Other members of Juncaginaceae (and the relatively close Maundiaceae) possess a peculiar type of gynoecium with pronounced carpel fusion via the floral centre. Their carpels are supplied by individual vascular traces and can be interpreted either as synascidiate (if viewed as horizontally inserted) or free and plicate (if viewed as obliquely inserted on an elongated receptacle). In Tetroncium, the gynoecium is tetracarpellate and clearly has a well-developed synascidiate zone with septa formed by united flanks of adjacent carpels. The gynoecium of Tetroncium is supplied by a common ring of vascular tissue that splits into dorsal and heterocarpellary ventral (synventral) bundles, a condition that can be expected in a typical syncarpous gynoecium. The fruit is indehiscent and contains one or two seeds. The syncarpy of Tetroncium is of functional significance for fruit formation, as it allows the thin septa to be distorted, thus providing more space for the developing seed(s). The occurrence of typical syncarpy in Tetroncium provides further evidence for the highly homoplastic evolution of gynoecium characters in the early-divergent monocot order Alismatales. Either the similarity between gynoecia of Maundiaceae and Triglochin (Juncaginaceae) is due to parallel evolution or the syncarpy of Tetroncium should be viewed as secondarily derived. In the latter scenario, fusion via the floral centre is probably a synapomorphy of core Alismatales (Helobiae) and more typical syncarpy evolved independently in several lineages, such as Scheuchzeria, Tetroncium and Butomus/Hydrocharitaceae. In total, Tetroncium differs from other Juncaginaceae in 13 structural characters, including ensiform leaves that are similar to those of Tofieldiaceae. [ DOI ]

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