Old Russian city and the landscapeтезисы доклада

Дата последнего поиска статьи во внешних источниках: 27 января 2016 г.

Работа с тезисами доклада


[1] Graves I. V., Nizovtsev V. A., Erman N. M. Old russian city and the landscape // Book of abstracts of International Geographical Union Regional Conference “Geography, Culture and Society for Our Future Earth”, 17–21 August 2015, Moscow, Russia. — Vol. 3941 of Thematic Session "Cultural Regionalism and Regional Identity". — Russian Federation: Russian Federation, 2015. — P. 160. The landscape analysis of the spatial distribution of historical cities has showed that at an early stage (in the IX-XI cent.) in the Old Russian period the places for the construction of cities (ancient cities - Rurik settlement - Great Novgorod, Gnezdovo-Smolensk, Beloozero etc.), as a rule were chosen on the most important waterways taking into account their safety, with a relatively simple landscape structure mainly on downhill surfaces of low floodplain or lacustrine terraces, areas of low valley outwash plains, rarely on valley slopes of interfluvial plains, sometimes on high flood plains, leaving the regime of flooding. In the XII century cities began to be established in the river valleys on the steep banks of the relatively isolated areas of valley outwash plains (mostly low valley outwash plain), cropped from the sides by sharp valleys of small river subsidiaries or stream valleys of the braced type. Suburbs were situated on the lower levels: on the second and the first above flood-plain terrace. As almost all cities were self-reliant on food or formed as centers of surrounding rural areas, when choosing a place of establishment of the city a preference was given to ecotone areas with a complex landscape structure and rich resource base, which allowed the first inhabitants to have a flexible complex economy. In general, lands surrounding the cities as a rule had optimal properties for the tillers of that time. The main limiting factor of the nature use at that time was poor drainage of the land. Urban development mainly followed the estate type: house, outbuildings and surrounding plot with orchards, garden, etc. Based on a detailed analysis of the landscape with the preparation of corresponding maps of the topography of Smolensk, Great Novgorod, Totma, Great Ustyug and Solvychegodsk an attempt was made to explain from the landscape position the problem of the transfer of a number of ancient cities (the problem of "pair cities" in historiography).

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