Emergency services of viral RNAs: Repair and remodelingстатья

Статья опубликована в высокорейтинговом журнале

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Дата последнего поиска статьи во внешних источниках: 10 августа 2018 г.

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[1] Agol V. I., Gmyl A. P. Emergency services of viral rnas: Repair and remodeling // Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. — 2018. — Vol. 82, no. 2:e00067-17. — P. 1–42. Reproduction of RNA viruses is typical error-prone due to the infidelity of their replicative machinery and usual lack of proofreading mechanisms. The error rates may be close to those that kill the virus. Consequently, populations of RNA viruses are represented by heterogeneous sets of genomes with various fitness. This is especially consequential when viruses encounter various bottlenecks, and new infections are initiated by a single or few deviating genomes. Nevertheless, RNA viruses are able to maintain their identity by conservation of major functional elements. This conservatism stems from the genetic robustness or mutation tolerance, which is largely due to the functional degeneracy of many protein and RNA elements as well as to the negative selection. Another relevant mechanism is the capacity to restore fitness after genetic damages, based on the replicative infidelity too. Conversely, the error-prone replication is a major tool ensuring viral evolvability. The potential for changes in debilitated genomes is much higher in small-sized populations, because low-fit genomes have, in the absence of stronger competitors, a choice of various trajectories to wander along fitness landscapes. Thus, low-fit populations are inherently unstable and it may be said that to run ahead it is useful to stumble. Here, focusing on picornaviruses and considering also data from other RNA viruses, we review biological relevance and mechanisms of various alterations of viral RNA genomes as well as pathways and mechanisms of their rehabilitation after loss of the fitness. The relationships between mutational robustness, resilience, and evolvability of viral RNA genomes are discussed. [ DOI ]

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